References are like constant pointers that are automatically dereferenced by the compiler. The copy-constructor is used by the compiler to pass and return objects by value into and out of functions. It is usually used for function argument lists and function return values. But you can also make a free-standing reference. For example. In line 1the compiler allocates a piece of storage, initializes it with the value 12, and ties the reference to that piece of storage.
Thus, if you write lines like 2 and 3then incrementing a is actually incrementing xas is shown in main. Again, the easiest way to think about a reference is as a fancy pointer. There are certain rules when using references :. When a reference is used as a function argument, any modification to the reference inside the function will cause changes to the argument outside the function.
Of course, you could do the same thing by passing a pointer, but a reference has much cleaner syntax. You can think of a reference as nothing more than a syntax convenience, if you want. If you return a reference from a function, you must take the same care as if you return a pointer from a function. The reference argument in Reference. If you know the function will respect the const ness of an object, making the argument a const reference will allow the function to be used in all situations.
The use of const references in function arguments is especially important because your function may receive a temporary object. This might have been created as a return value of another function or explicitly by the user of your function.
As a very simple example. The call to f 1 causes a compile-time error because the compiler must first create a reference. It does so by allocating storage for an intinitializing it to one and producing the address to bind to the reference.
The storage must be a const because changing it would make no sense — you can never get your hands on it again. In C, if you want to modify the contents of the pointer rather than what it points to, your function declaration looks like:. The function argument becomes a reference to a pointer, and you no longer have to take the address of that pointer.
Your normal habit when passing an argument to a function should be to pass by const reference. This is the subject of the next section.Cubeset function
This constructor is essential to control passing and returning of user-defined types by value during function calls. To understand the need for the copy-constructor, consider the way C handles passing and returning variables by value during function calls. If you declare a function and make a function call. It just knows! The range of the types it must deal with is so small — charintfloatdoubleand their variations — that this information is built into the compiler.
This is also true for the expression for g. The logic behind the code, however, will remain the same.See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. This item does not appear to have any files that can be experienced on Archive.
Please download files in this item to interact with them on your computer. Show all files. An excellent tutorial to mastering this rich and sometimes daunting programming language, filled with expert advice and written in a patient, knowledgeable style.
The effective presentation, along with dozens of helpful code examples, make this book a standout. The emphasis here is on practical programming, so there's basic advice on using header files, preprocessor directives, and namespaces to organize code effectively. Each chapter ends with exercises usually about two dozenand the entire text of the book is available on the accompanying CD-ROM. This new version continues to set a high standard as an approachable and thorough tutorial.
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Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Code Revisions 3. Embed What would you like to do? Embed Embed this gist in your website. Share Copy sharable link for this gist. Learn more about clone URLs. Download ZIP. Thinking in cpp, 2nd ed. Create a program that opens a file and counts the whitespace-separated words in that file.
Change Fillvector. This should be enough to carry you through Chapter 3, which can be a bit exhausting since it contains most of the details of the C language. A class is a new data type that you or someone else creates to solve a particular kind of problem. Once a class is created, anyone can use it without knowing the specifics of how it works, or even how classes are built. This chapter treats classes as if they are just another built-in data type available for use in programs.
Classes that someone else has created are typically packaged into a library. An especially important standard library is iostreams, which among other things allow you to read from files and the keyboard, and to write to files and the display.
In order to create your first program you must understand the tools used to build applications.
3: The C in C++
The process of language translation All computer languages are translated from something that tends to be easy for a human to understand source code into something that is executed on a computer machine instructions. Traditionally, translators fall into two classes: interpreters and compilers. Interpreters An interpreter translates source code into activities which may comprise groups of machine instructions and immediately executes those activities.
BASIC, for example, has been a popular interpreted language. Traditional BASIC interpreters translate and execute one line at a time, and then forget that the line has been translated. This makes them slow, since they must re-translate any repeated code. BASIC has also been compiled, for speed. More modern interpreters, such as those for the Python language, translate the entire program into an intermediate language that is then executed by a much faster interpreter.
Interpreters have many advantages. The transition from writing code to executing code is almost immediate, and the source code is always available so the interpreter can be much more specific when an error occurs. The benefits often cited for interpreters are ease of interaction and rapid development but not necessarily execution of programs. Interpreted languages often have severe limitations when building large projects Python seems to be an exception to this. The interpreter or a reduced version must always be in memory to execute the code, and even the fastest interpreter may introduce unacceptable speed restrictions.
Most interpreters require that the complete source code be brought into the interpreter all at once. Compilers A compiler translates source code directly into assembly language or machine instructions. The eventual end product is a file or files containing machine code. This is an involved process, and usually takes several steps. The transition from writing code to executing code is significantly longer with a compiler. Depending on the acumen of the compiler writer, programs generated by a compiler tend to require much less space to run, and they run much more quickly.
Some languages such as C are designed to allow pieces of a program to be compiled independently.It also contains exercises and guided solutions. Keep in mind that because this chapter goes beyond the Thinking in C CD, the CD is not a replacement for this chapter, but should be used instead as a preparation for this chapter and for the book. Everything seemed fine until you ran the program. You got mysterious results or worse, the program crashed with no hints as to why.
With function prototyping, you must use a description of the types of arguments when declaring and defining a function.
If the programmer makes a mistake when calling the function, the compiler catches the mistake. In a function prototype, the argument list contains the types of arguments that must be passed to the function and optionally for the declaration identifiers for the arguments. The order and type of the arguments must match in the declaration, definition, and function call. You do not use the same form when declaring variables in function prototypes as you do in ordinary variable definitions.
That is, you cannot say: float x, y, z. You must indicate the type of each argument. In a function declaration, the following form is also acceptable:.
In the function definition, names are required because the arguments are referenced inside the function:. It turns out this rule applies only to C.Create react app inline js
Since it is unnamed, you cannot use it in the function body, of course. However, the person creating the function can then use the argument in the future without forcing modification of code that calls the function.
This option of ignoring an argument in the list is also possible if you leave the name in, but you will get an annoying warning message about the value being unused every time you compile the function. The warning is eliminated if you remove the name. Defining a function with a variable argument list is significantly more complicated than defining a regular function.
You can use a variable argument list for a function that has a fixed set of arguments if for some reason you want to disable the error checks of function prototyping.
Thinking in C++, 2nd ed. Volume 2 Revision 4.0 - Index
Handling variable argument lists is described in the library section of your local C guide. The return type specification precedes the function name. To specify that no value is returned, use the void keyword.
This will generate an error if you try to return a value from the function. Here are some complete function prototypes:. To return a value from a function, you use the return statement. If return has an argument, that argument becomes the return value of the function. If a function says that it will return a particular type, then each return statement must return that type.
You can have more than one return statement in a function definition:.Palmas moonrocks
A word of caution, though: many compilers include a lot of extra functions that make life even easier and are tempting to use, but are not part of the Standard C library. If you are certain you will never want to move the application to another platform and who is certain of that? If you want your application to be portable, you should restrict yourself to Standard library functions.
If you must perform platform-specific activities, try to isolate that code in one spot so it can be changed easily when porting to another platform. The formula for using a library function is as follows: first, find the function in your programming reference many programming references will index the function by category as well as alphabetically.
The description of the function should include a section that demonstrates the syntax of the code. The top of this section usually has at least one include line, showing you the header file containing the function prototype.In C, one of the ways to preserve efficiency is through the use of macroswhich allow you to make what looks like a function call without the normal function call overhead.
This can bury difficult-to-find bugs. This means preprocessor macros cannot be used as class member functions. The key to the problems of preprocessor macros is that you can be fooled into thinking that the behavior of the preprocessor is the same as the behavior of the compiler. The difficulties begin when the subtle differences appear. The problem occurs because of the gap between F and its opening parenthesis in the macro definition.
When this gap is removed, you can actually call the macro with the gap. The example above is fairly trivial and the problem will make itself evident right away. The real difficulties occur when using expressions as arguments in macro calls. There are two problems. The first is that expressions may expand inside the macro so that their evaluation precedence is different from what you expect.
For example. Once you discover the problem, you can solve it by putting parentheses around everything in the macro definition. This is a good practice to use when creating preprocessor macros. So you can easily begin to think that it works with all expressions, including those using bitwise logical operators. The preceding problem can be solved with careful programming practice: parenthesize everything in a macro. However, the second difficulty is subtler. Unlike a normal function, every time you use an argument in a macro, that argument is evaluated.
As long as the macro is called only with ordinary variables, this evaluation is benign, but if the evaluation of an argument has side effects, then the results can be surprising and will definitely not mimic function behavior. For example, this macro determines whether its argument falls within a certain range:.
But as soon as you relax and start believing it is a real function, the problems start. Notice the use of all upper-case characters in the name of the macro.Author Index Publisher Index.
Volume 1. Author: Bruce Eckel. Year: Publisher: Prentice Hall. If successful, this medium of expression will be significantly easier and more flexible than the alternatives as problems grow larger and more complex. You can only use the sum of the parts if you are thinking about design, not simply coding. Thus, the set of features I explain in each chapter will be based on the way that I see a particular type of problem being solved with the language.
In this edition I have added a chapter that is a rapid introduction to C, along with the Thinking in C seminar-on-CD, but I am still assuming that you already have some kind of programming experience.
Worse, my background and experience was in hardware-level embedded programming, in which C has often been considered a high-level language and an inefficient overkill for pushing bits around. Both editions of the book garnered enthusiastic response. As I began giving in-house training to smaller groups of people, I discovered something during the exercises.
Even those people who were smiling and nodding were confused about many issues. So eventually, through both variety in the audience level and the way that I presented the material, I would end up losing some portion of the audience.CppCon 2016: Arthur O'Dwyer “Template Normal Programming (part 1 of 2)”
For a time, I was creating a number of different presentations in fairly short order. Eventually I developed a course using everything I had learned from my teaching experience. It tackles the learning problem in discrete, easy-to-digest steps and for a hands-on seminar the ideal learning situation there are exercises following each of the presentations.
You can find out about my public seminars at www.
The first edition of this book developed over the course of two years, and the material in this book has been road-tested in many forms in many different seminars. More than anything, the book is designed to serve the solitary reader who is struggling with a new programming language.
Goals My goals in this book are to: 1.
Present the material one simple step at a time, so the reader can easily digest each concept before moving on. Use examples that are as simple and short as possible.Veteran atm
Give you what I think is important for you to understand about the language, rather than everything that I know. To take an example from C, if you memorize the operator precedence table I never didyou can write clever code.If successful, this medium of expression will be significantly easier and more flexible than the alternatives as problems grow larger and more complex. You can only use the sum of the parts if you are thinking about designnot simply coding.
Thus, the set of features I explain in each chapter will be based on the way that I see a particular type of problem being solved with the language. The entire text present in the first edition has been examined and rewritten, sometimes removing old examples, often changing existing examples and adding new ones, and adding many new exercises.
These and other more advanced topics have been relegated to Volume 2 of this book, including issues such as multiple inheritance, exception handling, design patterns, and topics about building and debugging stable systems.
You can find information on the Web site about the expected print date of Volume 2. In the first edition of this book, I decided to assume that someone else had taught you C and that you have at least a reading level of comfort with it.
In this edition I have added a chapter that is a rapid introduction to C, along with the Thinking in C seminar-on-CD, but I am still assuming that you already have some kind of programming experience.
Worse, my background and experience was in hardware-level embedded programming, in which C has often been considered a high-level language and an inefficient overkill for pushing bits around. Both editions  of the book garnered enthusiastic response. As I began giving in-house training to smaller groups of people, I discovered something during the exercises. Even those people who were smiling and nodding were confused about many issues.
So eventually, through both variety in the audience level and the way that I presented the material, I would end up losing some portion of the audience. For a time, I was creating a number of different presentations in fairly short order. Eventually I developed a course using everything I had learned from my teaching experience. It tackles the learning problem in discrete, easy-to-digest steps and for a hands-on seminar the ideal learning situation there are exercises following each of the presentations.
You can find out about my public seminars at www. The first edition of this book developed over the course of two years, and the material in this book has been road-tested in many forms in many different seminars. More than anything, the book is designed to serve the solitary reader who is struggling with a new programming language.
Because of this, it is referred to as a hybrid object-oriented programming language. Because it appears to be the natural progression of the procedurally-trained mind, I decided to understand and follow this same path and accelerate the process by posing and answering the questions that came to me as I learned the language and those questions that came from audiences as I taught the language. Audience feedback helped me understand which parts were difficult and needed extra illumination.
The goal, then, is for each chapter to teach a single concept, or a small group of associated concepts, in such a way that no additional features are relied upon. That way you can digest each piece in the context of your current knowledge before moving on.
To accomplish this, I leave some C features in place for longer than I would prefer. Here is a brief description of the chapters contained in this book:. Chapter 1: Introduction to Objects. The chapter walks you through the basic concepts and features of OOP and also introduces the analysis and design process.
Chapter 2: Making and Using Objects. This chapter explains the process of building programs using compilers and libraries. Chapter 4: Data Abstraction. Not only does this provide superior code organization, but it lays the groundwork for more powerful OOP abilities.
Chapter 5: Hiding the Implementation. You can decide that some of the data and functions in your structure are unavailable to the user of the new type by making them private. This means that you can separate the underlying implementation from the interface that the client programmer sees, and thus allow that implementation to be easily changed without affecting client code. Chapter 6: Initialization and Cleanup.
One of the most common C errors results from uninitialized variables. Chapter 7: Function Overloading and Default Arguments. While doing this, you may bring in multiple libraries that use the same function name, and you may also choose to use the same name with different meanings within a single library.
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